ما هو العلاج بتحليل السلوك التطبيقي؟
تحليل السلوك التطبيقي هو نهج مثبت علمياً لفهم السلوك وتغيراته وأثر البيئة في تشكيلة، حيث يشير إلى مجموعة من مبادئ تحليل السلوك وكيفية حدوث التعلم من نواح عدة. أصبح هذا العلاج رائد لعلاج الاضطرابات السلوكية والنمائية لاحتوائه على أدوات منهجية وقوية لمساعدة أطفال اضطراب طيف التوحد أو ذوي الاضطرابات السلوكية أو النمائية على تغيير سلوكهم بطرق إيجابية طويلة الأمد.
People with speech disorders have difficulty producing the sounds of speech, saying words clearly or talking fluently.
Children often have trouble with pronunciation, and may have a lisp or swap certain sounds for others. Speech disorders may be the result of developmental disorders, but psychological factors might also play a role. Adults with neurological diseases sometimes have speech disorders too, often making it hard to understand them.
Another group of speech disorders, known as fluency disorders, involve problems with the flow or evenness of speech. People with this sort of disorder may stutter or “clutter,” for example. When people stutter, there are often silent pauses in their speech, or they repeat or lengthen certain sounds or syllables. Cluttering is abnormally fast speech that makes the pronunciation imprecise or leaves out sounds or parts of words.
Voice disorders (dysphonia)
A voice disorder is a persistent change in someone’s voice. They might sound hoarse, strained, raspy or nearly silent. Often the voice is somewhat weak – in other words, it cracks easily or the person is not able to speak loudly. Voice disorders may arise from speaking too much or too loudly, from using the wrong breathing technique, or from problems with the voice box (larynx) like vocal nodules. Psychological causes like depression or a reaction to a distressing event can change a person’s voice too.
In people with swallowing problems, the movements of the muscles involved in swallowing are affected. This leads to problems transporting food through the mouth and throat. The cause is often a disease or disorder of the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, dementia, an infection like Lyme disease or tetanus, or a head injury. If food gets into the lungs because of a swallowing disorder, it can lead to life-threatening complications.